Plant Tissue Culture Media. MS Type Media. PTC Media. Vitamin Mixtures. Terms and conditions of sale and shipment. General. Duchefa Biochemie B.V. Biochemicals Catalogue (English). CC; 1 pcs; € ; Order.
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The effects of major mineral salts, l -glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source on shoot bud proliferation of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. The highest number of shoot buds per explant The concentrations of l -glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source significantly affected the number of shoot buds catalohue explant. However, they had no effect on hyperhydricity, tissue browning and precocious rooting. Date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. The worldwide population of date palm trees is estimated to be around million Al-Khayri et al.
Among these cultivars, cv. Mejhoul is vuchefa the most popular and most desired variety by the Moroccan farmers and consumers. Mejhoul is threatened by bayoud, a very dangerous disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. Mejhoul from bayoud and to produce enough plants to satisfy the high demand of farmers and consumers, developing a large-scale propagation system then planting regenerants in bayoud-free cata,ogue is the only practical solution.
Along this line, a micropropagation program through organogenesis was released in by the Moroccan Ministry of Agriculture, cataloguue cultivars of high fruit quality such as Najda, Boufeggous and Bouskri. The amount of plants of cv. However, micropropagation of date palm is genotype dependent Jainand cv. Mejhoul is one of the most recalcitrant cultivars to in vitro manipulations.
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Therefore, developing an efficient regeneration system through organogenesis for this cultivar would require a high optimization of media components and culture conditions. Studies on date palm micropropagation through organogenesis are scarce. In the past few years, regeneration systems through this technique were reported in some cultivars; e.
Maktoom Khierallah and Badercv. Dhakki Khan and Bi Bicv. Hillawi Al-Mayahi and cv. However, the majority of works focused on the effects of plant growth regulators PGRs. The effects of other factors such as mineral salts, l -glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source have been scarcely evaluated for date palm organogenesis Al-Khateeb a ; Mazri; Mazri and Meziani Major mineral salts macronutrients are inorganic elements needed in relatively large amounts for healthy and vigorous growth of plants George and de Klerk Carbohydrates are essential elements for in vitro propagation of plants Thorpe et al.
They are employed as a source of energy and as an osmotic agent Thorpe et al. The mineral and carbohydrate requirements for shoot bud proliferation of date palm seem to depend on the genotype used. With regard to l -glutamine and myo-inositol, their effects on date palm organogenesis have never been evaluated. It has been used to promote somatic embryo proliferation, maturation and germination of many plant species, including date palm Encina et al.
Myo-inositol is a vitamin that promotes cell and protoplast division Bellini et al. The success of date palm organogenesis is hampered by some physiological disorders: The composition of the culture medium affects the incidence of these physiological disorders. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account their occurrence during the optimization of the culture medium. The purpose of this investigation was to optimize the concentrations of mineral salts, l -glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source for a rapid and efficient shoot bud multiplication of the recalcitrant date palm cultivar Mejhoul and to examine their effects on the incidence of hyperhydricity, tissue browning and precocious rooting.
Accordingly, a total of 70 different culture media were evaluated. This study used organogenic cultures, comprising four buds each, and obtained from shoot tip explants of date palm cv. Mejhoul as described by Beauchesne et al. Briefly, offshoots 3-year-old were removed from adult trees.
The outer leaves were detached then the shoot tip was extracted. The shoot tip was subjected to disinfection with 0. The pH of the culture medium was adjusted to 5.
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Mineral salts, l -glutamine, myo-inositol and carbon source concentrations tested during shoot bud proliferation of date palm cv. All media were supplemented with vitamins and minor salts of MS basal formulation, 0. Organogenic cultures of date palm cv. Actalogue this experiment, four concentrations 0. For shoot elongation and rooting, 4. After the elongation—rooting phase, well-rooted plantlets with three to four leaves were transferred to the glasshouse as described by Mazri and Meziani Briefly, the plantlets were removed from the culture medium.
The plantlets were then transferred to plastic bags with a mixture of peat—gravel 1: During the multiplication phase, there were ten replicates of each treatment, and each replicate consisted of catalotue jar containing two organogenic cultures.
Percentage data were arcsine transformed prior to analysis. Shoot bud multiplication, elongation, rooting and acclimatization of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Yellow arrows indicate hyperhydricity. Effect of different concentrations of ammonium nitrate NH ducheefa NO 3 and potassium nitrate KNO 3 on shoot bud proliferation of date palm cv.
The findings of the first and second experiments demonstrated that the concentrations of the macro-elements employed do not affect tissue browning and precocious rooting of explants. In fact, the average number of shoot buds per explant significantly increased to The different concentrations of l -glutamine and myo-inositol did not show a significant effect on the incidence of hyperhydricity, tissue browning and precocious rooting.
Effect of l -glutamine and catalkgue concentrations on shoot bud proliferation of date palm cv. The use of sorbitol, mannitol and commercial granulated sugar at the same concentration showed lower multiplication rates Higher sucrose concentrations did not increase the number of shoot buds, while lower concentrations produced lower number of shoot buds per explant The buds produced on media supplemented with sucrose Fig.
Effect of carbon source type and concentration on shoot bud proliferation of date palm cv. The final improved medium for shoot bud multiplication of date palm cv.
The average number of shoot buds produced in the improved medium was Comparison of shoot bud proliferation of date palm cv. Mejhoul when grown in standard and improved culture media. Shoot elongation and rooting Fig. In date palm, Mejhoul is one of the most recalcitrant cultivars in tissue culture.
In view of developing an efficient regeneration protocol for this cultivar, the most appropriate nutritional requirements for shoot bud multiplication were determined.
The concentration of mineral salts strongly affected shoot bud multiplication of date palm cv. Similar results have been observed in other plant species such as Rubus idaeus L.
Poothonga and ReedBillbergia zebrina Martins et al. Mineral requirements for date palm-cultured tissue seem to vary among cultivars Mazri and Meziani For example, in date palm cvs. In a previous study on cv.
It has been found also that hyperhydricity has increased at high concentrations of NH 4 NO 3 in the medium.
This confirms previous statements duchefx Al-Khateeb b and Abahmane who reported that high levels of ammonium ions increase the incidence of hyperhydricity.
On the other hand, the different levels of mineral salts evaluated did not affect the incidence of tissue browning and precocious rooting. It is involved in animal cell division Diestel et al. With regard to micropropagation, l -glutamine has been used to stimulate somatic embryo maturation and germination of many plant species such as Picea mariana Khlifi and TremblayPinus strobus Garin et al.
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In date palm tissue culture, studies on the effects of l -glutamine are dufhefa. Jihel and Bousthami Noir. The results of the present study indicate that l -glutamine improves also the proliferation of date palm shoot buds. Myo-inositol is a vitamin that stimulates cell division and an osmotic stabilizer for sustaining cell division Kim et al.
Myo-inositol has been used to promote callus growth Sepehr and Ghorbanli and protoplast division Bellini et al. To date, the effect of myo-inositol on date palm micropropagation has not been investigated.
Interestingly, it has been found that myo-inositol promotes shoot bud proliferation of date palm cv.
Lower or higher concentrations of sucrose did not improve shoot bud proliferation. This confirms the findings of Taha et al. However, in date palm cv. This shows that sugar requirement may differ among genotypes. In the ducheva study, sorbitol, mannitol and commercial granulated sugar appeared to be less effective than cataolgue in proliferating shoot buds of date palm cv.
This might be due to the different nutritional and osmotic potentials of these carbon sources, and their different effects on cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis Neto and Otoni ; Yaseen ducheta al.
Shoot elongation and rooting were achieved on PGR-free medium as it was previously reported in other date palm cultivars Mazri In fact, it has been found that shoot elongation and rooting on PGR-free media significantly increases the survival rate during the acclimatization phase Mazri and Meziani Generally speaking, high survival rates were reported in date palm organogenesis Khan and Suchefa Bi ; Khierallah and Bader ; Mazri ; Meziani et al.
In conclusion, mineral salts, l -glutamine, myo-inositol, as well as carbon source type and concentration significantly affect shoot bud proliferation of date palm cv. The optimized culture medium will be useful for the rapid and large-scale propagation of this recalcitrant and endangered date palm cultivar.
The effect of some natural compounds is currently being investigated to reduce duchrfa browning during the initiation and multiplication of adventitious buds of cv. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.