4 days ago Laelia furfuracea Lindl., Edwards’s Bot. Reg. t. Laelia furfuracea in The Orders and Families of Monocotyledons. Published on the internet. Sold out. Laelia furfuracea outcross # (‘Stony Point’ x ‘DH’) (approximately 25 seedlings per flask). The Species: It grows in southern Mexico at elevations. Laelia furfuracea Lindl. was described by John Lindley in the Botanical Register in He gave it the specific epithet from the Latin furfuraceus (scurfy) for the.

Author: Zulusho Najas
Country: Uzbekistan
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Spiritual
Published (Last): 21 April 2005
Pages: 299
PDF File Size: 14.74 Mb
ePub File Size: 1.73 Mb
ISBN: 303-5-39851-429-9
Downloads: 36318
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Tole

Laelia furfuracea

Laelia furfuracea is a species of orchid endemic to Mexico Oaxaca. Taxonomy biology — Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.

The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature furfuracex considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized.

They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants.

Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology, genetics, and cytology.

He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, thus, Ernst Mayr in defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species. This activity is what the term denotes, it is also referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems furfuraca are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus fuffuracea above only, than species.

While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to lawlia civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.

The publication of Furfugacea Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from onwards.

This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone. Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest ladlia, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate.

Plant — Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked laeliz Viridiplantae. This includes the plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae. Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis kaelia primary chloroplasts and their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color.

Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce turfuracea of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although reproduction furfyracea also common.

There are about — thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, green plants provide most of the worlds molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earths ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains, fruits and vegetables form humankinds basic foodstuffs, Plants play many roles in culture.

Furfuracew are used as ornaments and, until recently and in variety, they have served as the source of most medicines. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology, Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided, the other is animals.

The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle, who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus created the basis of the system of scientific classification. Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, however, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts.

When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a furfurzcea of organisms or taxon. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet settled. Those which have been called plants are in bold, the way in which the groups ffurfuracea green algae are combined and named varies considerably furfuracae authors.

Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis, most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that gurfuracea roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown, red and green algae.


Each of these groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms. Flowering plant — The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with families, approx. The term angiosperm comes from the Greek composite word meaning enclosed seeds, the ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, during the range to million years ago, and the first flowering plants are known from mya.

Furffuracea diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous, became widespread by mya, angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, laellia in the table. These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants, the amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms.

The vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the xylem and phloem form concentric rings, in the dicotyledons, the bundles in the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium, the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial.

Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They contain no cambium and once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases, the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower.

Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, and provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species, the fuurfuracea of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally on a shoot or from the axil of a leaf, occasionally, as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. There are two kinds of cells produced by flowers.

Laelia furfuracea at Santa Barbara Orchid Estate

Microspores, which divide to become pollen grains, are the male cells and are borne in the stamens. The female cells called megaspores, which divide to oaelia the egg cell, are contained in the ovule.

furfurzcea The flower ladlia consist only of parts, as in willow. Usually, other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls, the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as sepals and petals. The outer series is usually green and leaf-like, and functions to protect the rest of the flower, the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, and is more delicate in structure.

It functions to attract insect or bird pollinators, attraction is effected by color, scent, and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower. Monocotyledon — Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, are flowering plants whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon. However, molecular research has shown that while the monocots form a monophyletic group or clade.

Monocots have almost always recognized as a group, but with various taxonomic ranks. The largest family in this group by number of species are the orchids, about half as many species belong to the true grasses, which are economically the most important family furffuracea monocots. In agriculture the majority of the biomass produced comes from monocots and these include not only major grains, but also forage grasses, sugar cane, and the bamboos.

Other economically important monocot crops include various palms, bananas, gingers and their relatives, turmeric and cardamom, asparagus and the onions and garlic family. Additionally most of the bulbs, plants cultivated for their blooms, such as lilies, daffodils, irises, amaryllis, cannas, bluebells. The monocots or monocotyledons have, as the name implies, a single cotyledon, or embryonic leaf, from a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a particularly useful characteristic, nor is it completely reliable.

Nevertheless, monocots are sufficiently distinctive that there has rarely been disagreement as to membership of this group, however, morphological features that reliably characterise major clades are rare. Thus monocots are distinguishable from other angiosperms both in terms of their uniformity and diversity, although largely herbaceous, some arboraceous monocots reach great height, length and mass.

The latter include agaves, palms, pandans, and bamboos and this creates challenges in water transport that monocots deal with in various ways. Some such as species of Yucca develop anomalous secondary growth, while palm trees, the axis undergoes primary thickening, that progresses from internode to internode, resulting in a typical inverted conical shape of the basal primary axis.

The limited conductivity also contributes to limited branching of the stems, despite these limitations a wide variety of adaptive growth forms has resulted from epiphytic orchids and bromeliads to submarine Alismatales and mycotrophic Burmanniaceae and Triuridaceae.

Other monocots, particularly Poales have adopted a life form. Leaves The cotyledon, the primordial Angiosperm leaf consists of a proximal leaf base or hypophyll, in moncots the hypophyll tends to be the dominant part in contrast to other angiosperms. Mature monocot leaves are narrow and linear, forming a sheathing around the stem at its base.

There is usually only one leaf per node because the leaf base encompasses more than half the furrfuracea, the evolution of this monocot characteristic has been attributed to developmental differences in early zonal differentiation rather than meristem activity.

  ISO 4190-1 PDF

Asparagales — Asparagales is an order of plants in modern classification systems such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web.

The order takes its name from the type family Asparagaceae and is placed in the monocots amongst the lilioid monocots, the order has only recently been recognized in classification systems. It was first put forward by Huber in and later taken up in the Dahlgren system of and then the APG inand Before this, many of its families were assigned to the old order Liliales, DNA sequence analysis indicated that many of the taxa previously included in Liliales should actually be redistributed over three orders, Liliales, Asparagales and Dioscoreales.

The boundaries of the Furfurqcea and of its families have undergone a series of changes in recent years, future research may lead to further changes and ultimately greater stability. In the Furfuraacea circumscription, Asparagales is the largest order of monocots with 14 families,1, genera, the order is clearly circumscribed on the basis of molecular phylogenetics, but is difficult to define morphologically, since its members are structurally diverse.

Curfuracea species of Asparagales are herbaceous perennials, although some are climbers, the order also contains many geophytes. According to telomere sequence, at least two evolutionary switch-points happened within the order, basal sequence is formed by TTTAGGG like in majority of higher plants.

Phytomelanin is found in most families of the Asparagales, the leaves of almost all species form a tight rosette, either at the base of the plant or at the end of the stem, but occasionally along the stem. The flowers are not particularly distinctive, being lily type, with six tepals, from an economic point of view, the order Asparagales is second in importance within the monocots to the order Poales.

Species are used as food and flavourings, as cut flowers, and as garden ornamentals. Thus although most species in the order are herbaceous, some no more than 15 cm high, there are a number of furfuracex, as well as several genera forming trees, succulent genera occur in several families. Almost all species have fhrfuracea cluster of leaves, either at the base of the plant or at the end of a more-or-less woody stem as with Yucca.

In some cases the leaves are produced along the stem, the flowers are in the main not particularly distinctive, being of a general lily type, with six tepals, either free or fused from the base and up to six stamina.

They are frequently clustered at the end of the plant stem and they are generally geophytes, but with linear leaves, and a lack of fine furfuraces venation.

The seeds characteristically have the external epidermis either obliterated, or if present, have a layer of black carbonaceous phytomelanin in species with dry fruits.

The inner part of the coat is generally collapsed, in contrast to Liliales whose seeds have a well developed outer epidermis, lack phytomelanin. Orchidaceae — The Orchidaceae are a furfurace and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and often fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.

Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants, the Orchidaceae have about 28, currently accepted species, distributed in about genera. The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species.

Furfuraceq family also includes Vanilla, Orchis, and furfuracfa cultivated plants such as Phalaenopsis. Moreover, since the introduction of species into cultivation in the 19th century, llaelia have produced more thanhybrids.

Orchids are easily distinguished from plants, as they share some very evident, shared derived characteristics. Among these are, bilateral symmetry of the flower, many flowers, a nearly always highly modified petal, fused stamens and carpels.

furfkracea All orchids are perennial herbs that lack any permanent woody structure laslia they can grow according to two patterns, Monopodial, The stem grows from a single bud, leaves are added from the apex each year and the stem grows longer accordingly. The stem of orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length, as in Vanda, Sympodial, Sympodial orchids have a front and a back. The plant produces a series of adjacent shoots which grow to a size, bloom. Sympodial orchids grow laterally rather than vertically, following the surface of their support, the growth continues by development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting from or furfuracda to those of the previous year, as in Cattleya.

While a new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a so-called eye, Sympodial orchids may have visible pseudobulbs joined by a rhizome, which creeps along the top or just beneath the soil.